Integrative Leadership Framework

Synthesis of Leadership for Learning

Mike Bottery and Michael Schiro

Regenerative Education Framework 3: Synthesis of Leadership for Learning

Affordance: synthesis of value codes and curriculum ideology to support the bridging of educational philosophy and leadership theory via the integration of cultural/moral leadership and the educative primacy of Leadership for Learning / Instructional Leadership.

  • VALUE CODE (Bottery)   
  • Curriculum Philosophy (Schiro)    
  • Links between Schooling & Society    
  • Purpose of the School   
  • Role of the Teacher   
  • Role of the Student   
  • Type of Knowledge Valued   
  • View of Childhood   
  • Function of Assessment   
  • Role of Leadership   
  • Economic Code
  • Social-Efficiency
  • Values conducive to utility & economic growth. Obedience to be fostered in lower ranks; creativity & discovery in higher ones (Bottery)
  • To develop members of society (Schiro)
  • Trainer, constructor & transmitter of values & practices, lower-order member of hierarchy (Bottery). Manager (Schiro)
  • To be trained to fit into an economic machine. Initiative & creativity encouraged if this dovetails with ultimate occupational destination (Bottery) Behaviorist theory of learning (Schiro)
  • That which furthers personal & national wealth, mostly with a technological, scientific, emphasis (Bottery) Objective reality as socially interpreted (Schiro)
  • Active & passive learners, productive members of society (Schiro)
  • Criterion-based to test ability to perform skills (Schiro)
  • Blend of hierarchical & utilitarian with some creative emphases if relevant to economic growth (Bottery)
  • Cultural Transmission
  • Scholar-Academic
  • Objectivist, semi-permanent values transmitted, internalized & practised (Bottery)
  • To develop new members of academic disciplines (Schiro)
  • Transmits knowledge & values reinforcing status quo (Bottery). Transmitter (Schiro)
  • Passive imbiber, usually one of many to be graded in stratified society (Bottery) Discipline-based theory of learning (Schiro)
  • Objectivist facts &values transmitted hierarchically – a banking concept of education (Bottery) Objective reality defined by academic disciplines (Schiro)
  • Passive learners, potential new members of the discipline (Schiro)
  • Norm-referenced to test student’s ability to represent what has been transmitted (Schiro)
  • Guardian, elitist, hierarchical, conservative, passing on given truths (Bottery)
  • Student-centred
  • Learner-centred
  • Valuing of student interests over either school-driven or societally-driven values (Bottery)
  • To support individual growth and interests (Schiro)
  • Facilitator & constructor of situations perceived beneficial for & by the child (Bottery) Facilitator (Schiro)
  • Active, involved constructor of personal curriculum & learning style (Bottery) Constructivist theory of learning (Schiro)
  • Based on student’s experience, choices and interests (Bottery) Individualized co-negotiation between teacher and learner (Schiro)
  • Active learners, individual minds (Schiro)
  • Formative, diagnostic; to appreciate student growth (Schiro)
  • Facilitator of student experiences and interests (Bottery)
  • Social Reconstruction
  • Social Reconstruction
  • Schools critically analyse societal values in terms of validity & social utility (Bottery)
  • To heal societal ills & achieve social justice (Schiro)
  • Facilitator & constructor of relevant problems & materials (Bottery) Companion (Schiro)
  • Active, critical & empowered identity gained through interaction in social groups (Bottery) Social-constructivist theory of learning (Schiro)
  • Topic/problem centred, focused on resolving pressing social & ecological issues (Bottery) Individualized, value-laden; focus on improving society (Schiro)
  • Active (activist?) members of changing society (Schiro)
  • Formative, diagnostic; to demonstrate reconstructive values (Schiro)
  • Leader of rational criticism & change; democratic & probably communitarian (Bottery)
  • Stewardship Code
  • Considerable emphasis on values of interdependence, sufficiency & intergenerational sustainability encouraged & practiced (Bottery)
  • Facilitator of sustainable thought and practice, linking micro- meso- and macro- for intergenerational consideration (Bottery)
  • Informed, active, critical of the impact of behaviours, customs & policies on ecological sustainability (Bottery)
  • Knowledge of covert threats that could critique excessive human consumption & move to actions for greater sustainability (Bottery)
  • Raiser of global existential issues, exemplar of sustainable practice, facilitator of critical systemic ’big picture’ thinking (Bottery)


The synthesis of leadership for learning integrates the typologies of Schiro (2012) writing in an American context and Bottery (2022) in a British context. These are mapped onto the worldview synthesis with the proviso that kinship worldview (most under threat from western worldviews) contrasts critically with a modern worldview perspective on economic social efficiency relative to life conditions of the anthropocene. Schiro invites us to explore our own positionally as teachers in relation to four different types of curriculum philosophy: Social-efficiency, Scholar-academic, Learner-centred and Social-reconstruction. These are correlated with four of Bottery’s value codes: Economic, Cultural Transmission, Student-centred and Reconstruction, whilst acknowledging the  emergence of a more metamodern model of steward leadership relating to sustainability and education for sustainable development of which he is the leading proponent in the field (Bottery, 2016; and Bottery et al, 2018)

Further Reading

Bottery, M. (2016). Educational Leadership for a More Sustainable World. Bloomsbury.

Bottery, M. (2022). The Educational Leader in a World of Covert Threats: Creating Multi-Level Sustainability. Bloomsbury.

Bottery, M., Ping-Man, W., & Ngai, G. (2018). Sustainable School Leadership: Portraits of Individuality. Bloomsbury.

Schiro, M. S. (2012). Curriculum Theory: Conflicting Visions and Enduring Concerns. Sage.

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Centre for Mindful Educational Leadership

Tim Saunders PhD


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