Integrative Leadership Framework

Synthesis of Worldviews

de Witt and Hedlund / Four Arrows and Narvaez

Integrative Leadership Framework 1: Synthesis of Worldviews

Affordance: expansive and inclusive intercultural reframing of Cultural models of organisational management and moral leadership of education

  • WORLDVIEW MODALITY   
  • ONTOLOGY - perspective on the nature of reality   
    perspective on the nature of reality
  • EPISTEMOLOGY -perspective on how knowledge of reality can be acquired   
    perspective on how knowledge of reality can be acquired
  • AXIOLOGY -perspective on what a good life is, in terms of morals, quality of life, ethical and aesthetic values   
    perspective on what a good life is, in terms of morals, quality of life, ethical and aesthetic values
  • ANTHROPOLOGY -perspective on who human beings are and what our role and position is in the universe   
    perspective on who human beings are and what our role and position is in the universe
  • SOCIETAL VISION -perspective on how society should be organized and how societal problems and issues should be addressed   
    perspective on how society should be organized and how societal problems and issues should be addressed
  • PRAXEOLOGY -Perspective on the nature of action, agency and practice   
    Perspective on the nature of action, agency and practice
GENERATIVE
  • Kinship Worldview
  • Animistic sense of all living beings and landscape as persons   Unity in diversity   Universe as source of nourishment   Nature as embodiment of gift
    perspective on the nature of reality
  • Panpsychism; evoking pervasiveness of spirit in all things Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK). Cyclic thinking, shamanistic guidance   Implicit methodology of storytelling   Practical mythic rationality
    perspective on how knowledge of reality can be acquired
  • Indigenous values (e.g., family, land ethic, identity, belonging, kinship)   Emphasis on family, clan, tribe, confederation   Tribal morality
    perspective on what a good life is, in terms of morals, quality of life, ethical and aesthetic values
  • Humanity in symbiotic caretaking role within nature   Prime purposes determined by survival needs and functional tribal roles Human being as part of nature Dependent on group cohesion for resourcefulness. Kincentric identity
    perspective on who human beings are and what our role and position is in the universe
  • Original societies, emphasis on nomadic and subsistence farming Importance of gift relationship & bioregional dwelling   Solidarity of the tribe extended to include co-existence with all sentient beings
    perspective on how society should be organized and how societal problems and issues should be addressed
  • Generative practice consisting of synoptic/problematic action via reflexive agency with a functional/disciplinary focus on actualization within an essential field
    Perspective on the nature of action, agency and practice
CONTEMPLATIVE
  • Traditional Worldview
  • Religious/metaphysical monism. Reality as singular, transcendent.   Universe as purposively constructed whole. God-created universe ex nihilo.   Transcendent God/Creator is separate from profane world; dualism.   Nature as embodiment of meaningful, imposed order (e.g., God’s creation)
    perspective on the nature of reality
  • Naïve realism; emphasis on concrete-literal interpretations of religious doctrine (literalism, dogmatism)   Religious/conventional authority (scripture, divine revelation, tradition).   Implicit literary methodology Substantive rationality
    perspective on how knowledge of reality can be acquired
  • Traditional values (e.g., security, tradition, conformity, obedience, humility).   Emphasis on role within political, religious, military hierarchy   Preconventional morality?
    perspective on what a good life is, in terms of morals, quality of life, ethical and aesthetic values
  • Humanity in managerial stewardship role vis-à-vis nature.   Prime purposes determined by larger order and social roles. Human being as sinful/fallen from grace. Dependent on religious/ metaphysical authorities for salvation.   Ethnocentric identity?
    perspective on who human beings are and what our role and position is in the universe
  • Feudal, hierarchical societies, emphasis on agriculture. Traditional and religious authorities and values as source of solutions to societal and environmental problems.
    perspective on how society should be organized and how societal problems and issues should be addressed
  • Contemplative practice consisting of dialectical/sublational action via comprehensive agency with a diaphanic focus on understanding within a noumenal field
    Perspective on the nature of action, agency and practice
INFORMATIVE
  • Modern Worldview
  • Secular materialism. Reality as singular, immanent.   Mechanistic universe brought about by random selection.   Material reality devoid of meaning, intentionality, consciousness; dualism, disenchantment.   Nature as instrumental, devoid of intrinsic meaning and purpose. Resource for exploitation.
    perspective on the nature of reality
  • Post-)positivism; emphasis on reality as objectively knowable (empiricism, reductionism, scientism).   Secular authority (science, the state).   Quantitative methods; methodological monism. Procedural rationality.
    perspective on how knowledge of reality can be acquired
  • Rational-secular, materialist values (e.g., power, achievement, hedonism).   Emphasis on independent individuality.   Conventional morality?
    perspective on what a good life is, in terms of morals, quality of life, ethical and aesthetic values
  • Humanity in promethean control over nature.   Prime purposes of a material, hedonistic nature. Human being as self-optimizing, independent being. Homo economicus. Nation-centric identity
    perspective on who human beings are and what our role and position is in the universe
  • Industrial societies, emphasis on mechanized modes of production (e.g. industrial/conventional agriculture). Technological optimism: science and technology as solutions to societal and environmental problems.
    perspective on how society should be organized and how societal problems and issues should be addressed
  • Informative practice consisting of logistic/computational action via elemental agency with an objective focus on explanation within a substrative field
    Perspective on the nature of action, agency and practice
TRANSFORMATIVE
  • Postmodern Worldview
  • Postmaterialism. Reality as pluralistic, perspectival, constructed.   Multiple cosmogonies/ cosmogony as social construct.   Reality as discontinuous and fragmented, meaning as social construct; antiessentialism. Nature as constructed through a plurality of cultural values, meanings, and interests.
    perspective on the nature of reality
  • Social constructivism; emphasis on reality as constructed (pluralism, relativism).   Internalization of authority (e.g., moral, emotional, intuitive, artistic knowing) Qualitative methods; methodological pluralism Skeptical rationality
    perspective on how knowledge of reality can be acquired
  • Self-expression, post-materialist values (e.g., openness to change, self-direction).   Emphasis on unique individuality. Postconventional morality
    perspective on what a good life is, in terms of morals, quality of life, ethical and aesthetic values
  • Humanity in cautious relationship to nature.   Prime purposes are found within, intrinsic. Human being as self- expressing, unique individual. Worldcentric identity
    perspective on who human beings are and what our role and position is in the universe
  • Postindustrial societies, emphasis on service economy and creative industries.   Scepticism of status quo, idealism Mobilization of the public through revealing injustices as prime solution to societal and environmental problems.
    perspective on how society should be organized and how societal problems and issues should be addressed
  • Transformative practice consisting of agonistic/paradoxical action via creative agency with a personal focus on emancipation within an existential field
    Perspective on the nature of action, agency and practice
REGENERATIVE
  • Integrative Worldview
  • Holism/integralism (unity in diversity). Reality as transcendent and immanent.   Universe as evolving, creative manifestation of source/spirit.   Outer and inner reality co-arising, interdependent; reenchantment.   Nature as intrinsically valuable. Frequently seen as divine force that humanity is part and expression of.
    perspective on the nature of reality
  • Critical realism, pragmatism; emphasis on reality as approachable through integration of sources of knowledge.   Triangulation of authority (scientific, spiritual/ religious/philosophical, and subjective knowing).   Mixed methods; integrative pluralism. Synthetic rationality
    perspective on how knowledge of reality can be acquired
  • Self-expression/self-transcendence values (e.g., universalism, self-actualization)   Emphasis on embedded, relational individuality   Universal morality
    perspective on what a good life is, in terms of morals, quality of life, ethical and aesthetic values
  • Humanity in unity and synergy with nature.   Prime purposes found within, serving larger whole (“service through self-actualization”). Human being as evolutionary cocreator, with a vast—though generally unrealized—potential.   Planetcentric identity
    perspective on who human beings are and what our role and position is in the universe
  • Increasing emphasis on services, creative industries, and social/sustainable entrepreneurship.   Integrative vision Emancipation of the public through consciousness growth and a synthesis of interests and perspectives as solutions to societal and environmental problems.
    perspective on how society should be organized and how societal problems and issues should be addressed
  • Regenerative practice based on contingent agency with an interdependent focus on sustainable action within generative, contemplative, progressive and transformative fields
    Perspective on the nature of action, agency and practice

Sources

The synthesis of worldviews is substantially based on the Integrative Worldview Framework of de Witt and Hedlund (2017) reinforced by Byrne (2016) which focuses on traditional, modern, postmodern and emerging integrative worldviews in the west as well as the first five philosophical modes of worldview. This is supplemented by a perspective on kinship/indigenous worldview based  on the work of WhinkpeTopa and Narvaez (2022), Andersen (2023) and Henriques (2022). The addition of the praxeology mode is based on the archic matrix of Watson (1993) and Dilworth (1989) and influenced by the systems philosophy of Rousseau et al (2018) as a further component of worldview.

Further Reading

Andersen, R. L. (2023). Polymodernity: Meaning and hope in a complex world. Nordic Bildung.

Byrne, E. (2016). Sustainability as contingent balance between opposing though interdependent tendencies; a process approach to progress and evolution. In E. Byrne, G. Mullally & C. Sage (Eds.), Transdisciplinary Perspectives on Transitions to Sustainability. Routledge.

De Witt, A., & Hedlund, N. (2017). Toward an Integral Ecology of Worldviews: Reflexive Communicative Action for Climate Solutions. In S. Mickey, S. Kelly & A. Robbert (Eds.), The Variety of Integral Ecologies Nature, Culture, and Knowledge in the Planetary Era (). State University of New York Press.

Dilworth, D. A. (1989). Philosophy in World Perspective: A Comparative Hermeneutic of Major Theories. Yale University Press.

Henriques, G. (2022). A New Synthesis for Solving the Problem of Psychology: Addressing the Enlightenment Gap. Springer.

Rousseau, D., Wilby, J., Billingham, J., & Blachfellner, S. (2018). General Systemology : Transdisciplinarity for Discovery, Insight and Innovation. Springer.

Watson, W. (1993). The Architectonics of Meaning: Foundations of the New Pluralism. University of Chicago Press.

WhinkpeTopa (Four Arrows), & Narvaez, D. (Eds.). (2022). Restoring the Kinship Worldview: Indigenous Voices Introduce 28 Precepts for Rebalancing Life on Planet Earth. North Atlantic Books.

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